'Quincha' - Engraving, Technique: Serigraphy., on cardboard. Size: 50 x 70 cm. Year: 2004. Quincha: Construction Material. Quincha and adobe: Citadel of Chan-Chan, Peru, Chimu Kingdom, Chimu culture, Pre-Inca period, V-VII centuries., The oldest city built completely in quincha and adobe (without stone) of the Americas. For example, the most representative is the citadel (city) of Chan-Chan, Peru. The walls are made of boulders 50 centimeters high, which serve as the basis for walls of quincha (cane with mud), with roofs of the same material, supported by wooden horcones. The most representative is the citadel (city) of Chan-Chan, from the late 600s and early 700s, during the V-VI centuries, (pre-Inca), on the northern coast of Peru, during the Chimu Kingdom ( Culture Chimu) where new models of cities arise, where the main structure was not only a ceremonial pyramid, but a large number of rooms and buildings surrounded by large walls, which accompany this as the most important part of the settlement. Chan Chan (from Chan-Chan quingnam, "Shining Sun") is a pre-Columbian (pre-Inca) adobe and quincha city, built on the north coast of Peru by the Chimu. It is the city built in adobe with walls of quincha, the largest in the Americas and the second in the world. It was declared a World Heritage Site by Unesco in 1986 and included in the List of World Heritage Sites in danger in the same year. (Another example of that time is the citadel of Pachacamac in the Lima Region.). Chan Chan is formed by nine citadel cities or small walled cities. The whole complex was the capital of the Chimor kingdom, the state organization of the Chimú culture. The 'quincha' is a traditional Peruvian construction material since pre-Inca times since it is an anti-earthquake construction material, it has been used since those immemorial times since the first Peruvian civilizations and pre-Inca kingdoms until today in the coast of Peru, due to the earthquakes. (My old house in the traditional district of Barranco, in Lima, Peru, is built on this traditional pre-Inca construction material of the Peruvian coast, which is the 'quincha', like most traditional houses in the district). However, the oldest city in the Americas, (contemporary to Mesopotamia and Chaldean-Assyria, Sumerian), is still the City of Caral (3000-1800 before Christ), Civilization Caral, or Caral Culture, in the Region Lima, Peru, the Sacred City of Caral (Monumental architecture). The building material of the Sacred City of Caral, was also the adobe, but mixed with stones (not with quincha, which also contain adobe), being also an anti-seismic construction material due to earthquakes.